Sweden
Education System in Sweden

Higher education: The Swedish system includes not only traditional university studies, but also Teacher Training, Health  Care Training, Technical Training, etc. It is the responsibility of: the central government, regional authorities and private interests. All higher education institutions fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education except for the University of Agricultural Sciences (Ministry of Agriculture). Higher education is divided into undergraduate studies (courses combined towards a first degree) and postgraduate studies and research.

University level first stage: Undergraduate studies: All basic higher education is offered in the form of courses. There is scope for individual choice but students may combine different courses into a degree programme. Study programmes are divided into credits. One credit corresponds to one week of full-time study. One year usually represents 40 credits. The Diploma (Högskoleexamen) is awarded after the completion of at least 80 credits (two years' full-time study). It is awarded by all universities and higher education institutions. The Bachelor's Degree (Kandidatexamen) is conferred after the completion of at least 120 credits (three years' full-time study). In the major subject, in-depth studies of at least 60 credits (three terms) are required, including an independent special project of at least 10 credits. Since 1 November 2001 there are two types of Magistersexamen (Master of): 1)The Magisterexamen med ämnesdjup is awarded after the completion of at least 160 credits (four years' full-time study). In the major subject, in-depth studies of at least 80 credits (four terms) are required, including an independent special project of at least 20 credits or two projects of at least 10 credits each. 2) The Magisterexamen med ämnesbredd requires at least 40 credits including an independent special project of at least 10 credits. The Magisterexamen med ämnesbredd is awarded in addition to a degree of at least 120 points. Apart from the general academic degrees, there are some 60 professional degrees (Yrkesexamen) which vary in length between 40 and 220 points, depending on their character and field of study. They include the degrees of Doctor of Medicine, Master of Science in Engineering or in Agriculture, as well as the Bachelor of Education for the Compulsory School.

University level second stage: Postgraduate studies: The Licentiatexamen (Licenciate degree) requires 80 points (two years of study and research) including a larger thesis, after completion of at least 120 points at undergraduate level. This degree can also be awarded as an intermediate degree towards the Doktorsexamen. which requires a minimum of four years' full-time study beyond completion of at least 120 points at the undergraduate level. Doctoral studies consist of seminars, reading and methodology courses, individual literature surveys and independent research. The thesis must describe and account for organization and results of research, be published and be publicly defended.